Biology – PAL Solutions
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The  4 Themes for this subject:

  • Principles of Biology

  • Maintenance and Regulation of Life Processes

  • Continuity of Life

  • Man and His Environment

1. Learners are expected to know how to identify cell structures between animal and plant cells, relationship between cell function and cell structure, and how to differentiate the cell, tissue, organ and organ system. Ability to define movement of substances such as  diffusion, osmosis and active transport, as well as describing the different tests to identify presence of starch, reducing sugars, protein and fats respectively, and how enzymes work.

2. By now, your child would have known the basics about photosynthesis. However, this is where we dive deeper into the nutrition and transportation of plants, how it transpires (gaseous exchange) and translocates food.

Thereafter, they'll learn about the human circulatory system, respiratory (aerobic/anaerobic), excretion, homeostasis and the responses of our nervous system.

3. Reproduction in plants:
(Asexual, pollinations, functions of the sepals, petals, anthers, carpels, stamens and stigmas, fertilisation and cell division.

And humans:
Functions of male and female reproductive organs, menstrual cycle, STDs & HIV, structure of DNA, genetics, inheritance, and the determination of gender – XX and XY chromosomes.

4. Lastly, the study of energy flow, food chain, carbon cycle, 
ecosystem, environmental biotechnology, and conservation for our planet Earth.